Persistent Homology Tools for Image Analysis

Asaad, A. (2020) Persistent Homology Tools for Image Analysis. Doctoral thesis, University of Buckingham.

DPhil _Final_ForPrint_22_2_2020.pdf

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Topological Data Analysis (TDA) is a new field of mathematics emerged rapidly since the first decade of the century from various works of algebraic topology and geometry. The goal of TDA and its main tool of persistent homology (PH) is to provide topological insight into complex and high dimensional datasets. We take this premise onboard to get more topological insight from digital image analysis and quantify tiny low-level distortion that are undetectable except possibly by highly trained persons. Such image distortion could be caused intentionally (e.g. by morphing and steganography) or naturally in abnormal human tissue/organ scan images as a result of onset of cancer or other diseases. The main objective of this thesis is to design new image analysis tools based on persistent homological invariants representing simplicial complexes on sets of pixel landmarks over a sequence of distance resolutions. We first start by proposing innovative automatic techniques to select image pixel landmarks to build a variety of simplicial topologies from a single image. Effectiveness of each image landmark selection demonstrated by testing on different image tampering problems such as morphed face detection, steganalysis and breast tumour detection. Vietoris-Rips simplicial complexes constructed based on the image landmarks at an increasing distance threshold and topological (homological) features computed at each threshold and summarized in a form known as persistent barcodes. We vectorise the space of persistent barcodes using a technique known as persistent binning where we demonstrated the strength of it for various image analysis purposes. Different machine learning approaches are adopted to develop automatic detection of tiny texture distortion in many image analysis applications. Homological invariants used in this thesis are the 0 and 1 dimensional Betti numbers. We developed an innovative approach to design persistent homology (PH) based algorithms for automatic detection of the above described types of image distortion. In particular, we developed the first PH-detector of morphing attacks on passport face biometric images. We shall demonstrate significant accuracy of 2 such morph detection algorithms with 4 types of automatically extracted image landmarks: Local Binary patterns (LBP), 8-neighbour super-pixels (8NSP), Radial-LBP (R-LBP) and centre-symmetric LBP (CS-LBP). Using any of these techniques yields several persistent barcodes that summarise persistent topological features that help gaining insights into complex hidden structures not amenable by other image analysis methods. We shall also demonstrate significant success of a similarly developed PH-based universal steganalysis tool capable for the detection of secret messages hidden inside digital images. We also argue through a pilot study that building PH records from digital images can differentiate breast malignant tumours from benign tumours using digital mammographic images. The research presented in this thesis creates new opportunities to build real applications based on TDA and demonstrate many research challenges in a variety of image processing/analysis tasks. For example, we describe a TDA-based exemplar image inpainting technique (TEBI), superior to existing exemplar algorithm, for the reconstruction of missing image regions.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Topological Data Analysis; Fake Detection; Algebraic topology; Applied topology; Persistent Homology; Morph Detection; Image Analysis; Local Binary Patterns
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: School of Computing
Depositing User: Rachel Pollard
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2020 14:06
Last Modified: 12 Mar 2020 15:08

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