Pakistani Intelligence and India

Richards, Julian (2015) Pakistani Intelligence and India. In: The Image of the Enemy: Intelligence Analysis of Adversaries since 1945. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC. ISBN 9781626162402

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Abstract

In this chapter, I explore the development of Pakistan’s intelligence structure and capability and the manner in which it has focused on the question of India. The story begins very much as a military one, in that the first confrontation over Kashmir, occurring just months after independence, exposed the weaknesses of military intelligence and the need for a new coordinating body. This was achieved in the shape of the Inter Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), established in 1948 under the stewardship of the Deputy Chief of Staff in the Pakistan army at the time of the Partition, Major General R Cawthorne. The first Kashmir conflict also exposed fears over Pakistan’s elongated north-south border with India, and the perceived strategic vulnerability of Indian incursions into Pakistani territory which could easily sever strategic routes in the country. The manner in which such fears loomed so large in Pakistan’s security outlook are partly a factor of national construction and myth-making in Pakistan, and the particular circumstances in which the country was formed – with some degree of acrimony – out of what many had assumed would be a unified India. In 1966, the former Foreign Minister and later Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, had struck a chord with many in the country by asserting that “India cannot tolerate the existence of Pakistan”, and that the destruction of Pakistan was a “sublime dream” for its larger neighbour.

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pakistan, India, intelligence, military, conflict
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DS Asia
J Political Science > JQ Political institutions Asia
U Military Science > U Military Science (General)
Divisions: School of Humanities > Economics and International Studies
Depositing User: Julian Richards
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2019 12:00
Last Modified: 21 Mar 2019 12:00
URI: http://bear.buckingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/303

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